Recent studies reported that non-caloric artificial sweeteners alter gut flora and promote glucose intolerance. Researchers found that feeding mice a mixture of saccharin, sucralose, or aspartame in place of regular drinking water increased blood sugar levels compared to a glucose solution or water alone, with saccharin showing the greatest impact. Saccharin-fed mice treated with gut bacteria-fighting antibiotics showed a reversal of the glucose intolerance. Researchers also evaluated non-diabetic subjects for artificial sweetener intake, blood sugar metabolism and gut microbiota and determined that those who consumed the most artificial sweeteners had higher fasting glucose levels, poorer glucose tolerance and altered gut bacteria levels compared to the subjects that did not consume artificial sweeteners. With reports from 2004 estimating that 15% of the population regularly used artificial sweeteners and from 2008 showing that 65% of American households bought at least one sucralose-containing product, researchers say their results beg for a review of non-calorie artificial sweeteners usage.